Make a submission.


Journal of Current Science and Technology

ISSN 2630-0656 (Online)

Incidence and progression of myopia in secondary school students: Follow-up for 2 years

  • Patchaphicha Yokkumpol , Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani, Thailand
  • Watanee Jenchitr, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani, Thailand, Corresponding author; E-mail:


Myopia in school-age children is increasing both in number and severity.  No previous study in Thailand had demonstrated the incidence and number of myopic progression.  The objective of this study is to investigate the incidence and progression of myopia in secondary school students in Patumthani after following up for two years.  By using a prospective longitudinal study, a total of 363 (82% coverage) secondary school students aged 12-14 years were included in the study.  The students had a complete eye examination and refraction, which were re-examined every year for two years, starting from September 2015 to March 2017.  Myopia was measured by auto and manifest refraction, except in some cases that were using cycloplegic refraction.  Age, sex, and progression of myopia were analyzed.  Within 19 months, the cumulative incidence of myopia, defined as a spherical equivalent of -0.50 diopters or less, was increasing from 24.52 to 31.36%, with an increment of -0.375 ± 0.247 diopters per year.  Myopia in secondary school students was not associated with sex (p=0.717) or age in the same year (p=0.791).  Increasing myopia was indifferent between females and males (p=0.837).  The right power of their eyeglasses was also indifferent (p=0.857).  In conclusion, refractive error in school-aged students exhibits a high prevalence and myopia progress as the students grow up.  Screening of refractive error in the students is essential because it improves education, quality of life, and socioeconomic status of Thailand.

Keywords: incidence; myopia; Patumthani; progression; Rangsit University; secondary school student

PDF (497.98 KB)

DOI: 10.14456/jcst.2019.10


Bourne, R. R. A., Stevens, G. A., White, R. A., Smith, J. L., Flaxman, S. R., Price, H.,  .  .  . Taylor, H. R. (2013). Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet Global Health, 1, e339-e349.

Fan, D. S. P., Lam, D. S. C., Lam, R. F., Lau, J. T. F., Chong, K. S., Cheung, E. Y. Y.,  .  .  . Chew, S.-J. 2004). Prevalence, incidence, and progression of myopia in school children in Hong Kong. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 45, 1071-1075. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.03-1151

Fricke, T., Holden, B., Wilson, D., Schlenther, G., Naidoo, K. S., Resnikoff, S., & Frick, K. D. (2012). Global cost of correcting vision impairment from uncorrected refractive error. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 90, 728-738. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.12.104034

Holden, B., Fricke, T. R., Wilson, D. A., Jong, M., Naidoo, K. S. , Sankaridurg, P.,  .  .  . Resnikoff, S. (2016). Global prevalence of myopia, high myopia, and temporal trends from 2000 to 2050. Ophthalmology, 123(5),1036-1042. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.01.006

ICD 10. (2010). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision, version for 2010. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2010.

Jenchitr, W., Hanutsaha, P., Iamsirithaworn, S., Panrat, U., Choosri, P., & Yenjitr, C. (2007). The national survey of blindness, low vision and visual impairment in Thailand 2006-7 (The First TVIP 2006-7). Thai Journal of Public Health Ophthalmology, 21(1), 10-93.

Jenchitr, W., & Raiyawa, S. (2011). Refractive error: the major visual impairment in Thailand. Rangsit Journal of Arts and Sciences, 2(2), 133-141. DOI: 10.14456/rjas.2012.13

Lin, Z., Vasudevan, B., Jhanji, V., Mao, G. Y., Gao, T. Y., Wang, F. H., et al. (2014). Near work, outdoor activity, and their association with refractive error. Optometry and Vision Science, 91, 376-382.

Morgan, I. G., Xiang, F., Zeng, Y., Mai, J., Chen, Q., Zhang, J.,  .  .  . Mingguang, H. (2014). Increased outdoor time reduces incident myopia – the Guangzhou outdoor activity longitudinal study. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55(13), 1272.

Pan, C. W., Ramamurthy, D., & Saw, S. M. (2012). Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 32(1), 3-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00884.x

Parnrut, U., Choosri, P., Jenchitr, W., Anutaraangkool, W., Wongkittirux, K., et al. (2004).: School eye health in Thailand. IAPB NEWS, 43(2), 6-7.

Pascolini, D., & Mariotti, S. P. (2012). Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. The British Journal of Ophthalmology, 96(5), 614-618. DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-300539

Rucci, M., & Victor, J. D. (2018). Perspective: Can eye movements contribute to emmetropization? Journal of vision, 18(7), 10. DOI: 10.1167/18.7.10

Smith, T., Frick, K., Holden, B., Fricke, T., & Naidoo, K. (2009). Potential lost productivity resulting from the global burden of uncorrected refractive error. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(6), 431-437. DOI: 10.2471/blt.08.055673

Somer, D., Karabulut, E., Cinar, F. G., Altiparmak, U. E., & Unlu, N. (2014) Emmetropization, visual acuity, and strabismus outcomes among hyperopic infants followed with partial hyperopic corrections given in accordance with dynamic retinoscopy. Eye (Lond), 28(10), 1165-1173. DOI: 10.1038/eye.2014.161

Tengtrisorn, S., Sangsupawanitch, P., & Chansawang, W. (2009). Cost effectiveness analysis of a visual screening program for primary school children in Thailand. Journal of Medical Association of Thailand, 92(8), 1050-1056.

Wen-Jun  Zhang, Y.-Y., Li, H., Wu, Y.-F., Xu, J., Lv. S.,  .  .  . Song, S.-F. (2016). Five-year progression of refractive errors and incidence of myopia in school-aged children in Western China. Journal of Epidemiology, 26(7), 386-396. DOI: 10.2188/jea.JE20140258

Wong, H. B., Machin, D., Tan, S. B., Wong, T. Y., & Saw, S. M. (2009). Visual impairment and its impact on health-related quality of life in adolescents. American journal of ophthalmology, 147, 505-511. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2008.09.025

Wu, P. C., Tsai, C. L., Wu, H. L., Yang, Y. H., & Kuo, H. K. (2013). Outdoor activity during class recess reduces myopia onset and progression in school children. Ophthalmology, 120(5), 1080-1085. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.11.009

Zhao, J., Mao, J., Luo, R., Li, F., Munoz, S. R., & Ellwin, L. B. (2002). The progression of refractive error in school-age children: Shunyi district, China. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 134(5), 735-743. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01689-6

Zhou, W.-J., Zhao, J., Mao, J., Luo, R., Li, F., Munoz, S. R., & Ellwin, L. B. (2002). The progression of refractive error in school-age children: Shunyi district, China. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 134(5), 735-743. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01689-6

Approved By TCI (2020 - 2024)

Indexed in