Make a submission.


Journal of Current Science and Technology

ISSN 2630-0656 (Online)

Eupatorium ayapana, a natural source of anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents

  • Sukanlaya Leejae, College of Oriental Medicine, Rangsit University, Patum Thani, Thailand, Corresponding author; E-mail: rhodomyrtone_sl@yahoo.c
  • Teeratad Sudsai, College of Oriental Medicine, Rangsit University, Patum Thani, Thailand
  • Chat Krobthong, College of Oriental Medicine, Rangsit University, Patum Thani, Thailand


         Eupatorium ayapana is one of the most important plants used in herbal medicine.  The plant is considered to be a therapeutic agent for the treatment of various diseases.  The objective of this research was to evaluate anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities of the plant extracts.  E. ayapana leaves were extracted with hexane, CH2Cl2, and EtOAc solvents and the extracts were further utilized in biological assays.  The results demonstrated that all of the extracts exhibited pronounced anti-biofilm formation against Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner.  E. coli biofilm formation was inhibited more than 80% after treatment with the CH2Cl2 and EtOAc extracts (1,024 µg/ml) compared with untreated cells.  In addition, the microorganism produced biofilm 40% less after treatment with 1,024 µg/ml hexane extract.  Moreover, the established bacterial biofilm also decreased after treatment with 1,024 µg/ml of all the extracts.  For anti-oxidant activity, the EtOAc extract exhibited excellent activity against DPPH radicals with the half inhibition concentration (IC50) value at 22.7 µg/ml, which is very closed to that of BHT (24.3 µg/ml).  In addition, the CH2Cl2 and EtOAc extracts exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity against nitric oxide with IC50 values at 65.7 and 66.9 µg/ml, respectively. The differences in biological activities of the extracts of E. ayapana can be used as novel anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant agents.

Keywords: Eupatorium ayapana; anti-biofilm formation; anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidant activity

PDF (279.55 KB)

DOI: 10.14456/rjas.2015.13


Arung, E. T., Kuspradini, H., Kusuma, I. W., Shimizu, K., & Kondo, R. (2012). Validation of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl leaves, a skin care herb from East Kalimantan, using a melanin biosynthesis assay. Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies, 5(2), 87-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.jams.2012.01.003

Begum, J., Bhuiyan, N. I., & Taznin, T. (2010). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl. aerial parts. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences, 12, 543-547.

Bepari, M., Maity, P., Sinha, B., & Choudhury, S. M. (2013). Eupatorium ayapana leaf extracts enhance anti-oxidant potential in Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma-bearing Swiss albino mice. International Journal of Life science & Phama Research, 3(4), 1-10.

Bose, P., Gupta, M., Mazumder, U. K., Kumar, R. S., Thangavel, S., & Kumar, R. S. (2007). Hepatoprotective and anti-oxiddant effects of Eupatorium ayapana against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 6(1), 27-33.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). (2011). Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard-eighth Edition. Pennsylvania, USA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Donlan, R. M., & Costerton, J. W. (2002). Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 15(2), 167-193. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.15.2.167-193.2002

Facknath, S., & Lalljee, B. (2008). Study of various extracts of Ayapana triplinervis for their potential in controlling three insect pests of horticulture crops. Tropicaltura, 26(2), 119-124.

Gauvin-Bialecki, A., & Marodon, C. (2009). Essential oil of Ayapana triplinerveis from Reunion Island:a good natural source of thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 36(11), 853-858. DOI: 10.1016/j.bse.2008.09.006

Jitsanong, T., Khanobdee, D., Piyachaturawat, P., & Wongprasert, K. (2011). Diarylheptanoid 7-(3,4 dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene from Curcuma comosa Roxb. protects retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Toxicology in Vitro, 25(1), 167-176. DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.10.014

Kaplan, J. B. (2010). Biofilm dispersal: mechanisms, clinical implications, and potential therapeutic uses. Journal of dental research, 89(3), 205-218. DOI: 10.1177/0022034509359403

Karaolis, D. K., Rashid, M. H., Chythanya, R., Luo, W., Hyodo, M., & Hayakawa, Y. (2005). c-di-GMP (39-59-cyclic diguanylic acid) inhibits Staphylococcus aureus cell-cell interactions and biofilm formation. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 49(3), 1029-1038. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.49.3.1029-1038.2005

Krishnan, M., Jayaraj, R. L., Megala, J., & Elangovan, N. (2014). Antioxidant mediated antiulcer effect of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl against acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Biomedicine and Aging Pathology, 4(2), 153-160. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomag.2013.12.002

Kuzma, L., Rozalski, M., Walencka, E., Rozalska, B., & Wysokinska, H. (2007). Antimicrobial activity of diterpenoids from hairy roots of Salvia sclarea L.: salvipisone as a potential anti-biofilm agent active against antibiotic resistant staphylococci. Phytomedicine, 14(1), 31-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2005.10.008

Mah, T. F. C., & O’Toole, G. A. (2001). Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents. Trends Microb, 9(1), 34-39. DOI: 10.1016/S0966-842X(00)01913-2

Maiti, S., & Mishra, T. K. (2000). Anti-venom drugs of Santals, Savars and Mahatos of Midnapore distric of West Bengal, India. Ethnobotany, 12, 77-80.

Melo, A. S., Monteiro, M. C., Silva, j. B., Oliverra, F. R., Vieira, J. S. F., Andrade, M. A., . . . Maia, C, S. F. (2013). Antinociceptive, neurobehavioral and anti-oxidant effects of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl on rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 147(2), 293-301. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.002

Narayanan, A. S., Raja, S. S. S., Ponmurugan, K., Kandekar, S. C., Natarajaseenivasan, K., Maripandi, A., & Mandeel, Q. A. (2011). Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal olants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Beneficial Microbes, 2(3), 235-243. DOI: 10.3920/BM2010.0033

Parimala K., Cheriyan, B. V., & Viswanathan, S. (2012). Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of petroleum ether extract of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl. International Journal of Life science & Phama Research, 2(3), 12-16.

Parsek, M. R., & Singh, P. K. (2003). Bacterial biofilms: an emerging link to disease pathogenesis. Annu Rev Microbiol, 57, 677-701. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.micro.57.030502.090720

Rahman, S., & Junaid, M. (2008). Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Eupatorium triplinerve Vehl. against some human pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 37(1), 89-92. DOI: 10.3329/bjb.v37i1.1570

Rajasekaran, A., Kalaivani, M., & Ariharasivakumar, G. (2010). Haemostatic effect of fresh juice and methanolic extract of Eupatorium ayapana leaves in rat model. International Journal of Biological & Medical Research, 1(3), 85-87.

Selvamangai, G., & Bhaskar, A. (2012). GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the methanolic extract of Eupatorium triplinerve. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2012, 1329-1332.

Sharath, R., Harish, B. G., Channarayappa, S., Preetham, J., & Sushma, S. (2014). Evaluation of antioxidant 340 activity of coumarin isolated from Eupatorium triplinerve. Resarch and Reviews: a Journal of Pharmacognosy, 1(1), 18-22.

Simoes, M., Simoes, L. C., & Vieira, M. J. (2010). A review of current and emergent biofilm control strategies. LWT-Food Science Technology, 43(4), 573-583. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2009.12.008

Sugumar, N., Karthikeyan, S., & Gowdhami, T. (2015). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl aerial parts. International Letters of Natural Sciences, 4, 14-21.

Tewtrakul, T., Subhadhirasakul, S., Karalai, C., Ponglimanont, C., & Cheenpracha, S. (2009). Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds from Kaempferia parviflora and Boesenbergia pandurata. Food Chemistry, 115(2), 534-538. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.057

Unnikrishnan, P. K., Varughese, T., Sreedhar, S., Balan, N., Balachandran, I., & Shree, A. B. (2014). Study on Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl from South India, a rich source for thymohydroquinone dimethylether and its antimicrobial activity. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants, 17, 652-657. DOI: 10.1080/0972060X.2014.914000

Zobell, C. E. (1943). The effect of solid surfaces upon bacterial activity. Journal of Bacteriology, 46(1), 39-56.

Approved By TCI (2020 - 2024)

Indexed in