A deep convolution neural network for facial expression recognition
- Palanichamy Naveen, Department of ECE, Sri Eshwar College of Engineering, Coimbatore, India, Corresponding author; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Pothiraj Sivakumar, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishnankoil , India
Facial expressions play an important role in non-verbal communication processes to identify people and recognize emotions. This article proposes a deep convolution neural network (CNN) for recognizing seven basic emotional states (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, neutral, sadness, and surprise) and presents results comparing the accuracy of the proposed and existing methods. A support vector machine (SVM) was used in the convolutional layer to classify the input images. Then a rectified linear unit (ReLU) was introduced to train the inputs more easily and to improve performance. To reduce the tendency of overfitting, global average pooling was employed, and the rescaled hinge loss function was introduced to decrease noise in the classification system. Finally, to reduce the memory and time requirements, Nestorov-accelerated adaptive moment estimation was introduced. When implemented with different data sets, the proposed method demonstrated increased recognition accuracy compared to existing methods. The recognition accuracy of the proposed method improved significantly to 78.76% and 82.58%, respectively, for the Radbound Faces Database (RaFD) and the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF) database and BU-3DFE data sets while the overall average accuracy was 62.3% for randomly downloaded images from the Internet.
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