Make a submission.


Journal of Current Science and Technology

ISSN 2630-0656 (Online)

Existence of bacterial contamination on inanimate surfaces and equipment in sub-district health-promoting hospitals in Chiang Rai, Thailand

  • Korakot Chansareewittaya, Public Health Major, School of Health Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand, Corresponding author; E-mail:
  • Sirikarnnapa Krajangcharoensakul, Scientific and Technological Instruments Center, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand


Hospital environments may serve as habitats for various microorganisms.  Here, we show, for the first time, the existence of bacterial contamination on inanimate surfaces and equipment of 12 select sub-district health-promoting hospitals (HPHs) in six districts of Chiang Rai, Thailand.  The swabbing technique was used to collect samples from 10 tested points (six from nursing rooms and four from toilets) of different sampling locations.  The collected swabbed samples were propagated, isolated, and identified based on their biochemical properties.  All 120 samples (100%) were found to be contaminated with 341 isolated bacterial strains, representing a predominance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (35.48%) and Bacillus sp. (19.06%).  Staphylococcus aureus and viridans streptococci accounted for 1.47% and 1.17% of all isolate bacteria, respectively.  The majority of gram-negative bacteria belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, including Escherichia coli (0.88%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.29%), and others (9.09%).  Less strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found (0.29%).  The toilet’s hand-washing sinks, followed by hospital personnel’s computers and keyboards, were identified as surfaces with the largest bacterial colonization.  Our results demonstrate promising evidence of environmental contaminants in HPHs.  Although they were not considered pathogenic strains, this contamination should be a concern. Appropriate disinfection procedures should be encouraged to reduce the transmission of “unconsidered” bacterial contaminants among HPHs and the community population.

Keywords: bacterial contamination; sub-district health-promoting hospitals; inanimate surfaces and equipment

PDF (1.41 MB)

DOI: 10.14456/jcst.2021.36


Brady, R. R. W., Kalima, P., Damani, N. N., Wilson, R. G., & Dunlop, M. G. (2007). Bacterial contamination of hospital bed-control handsets in a surgical setting: a potential marker of contamination of the healthcare environment. The Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England, 89(7), 656-660. DOI:

Brown, A., & Smith, H. (2012). Benson’s microbiological applications: Laboratory manual in general microbiology (13th ed.). The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cappuccino, J. G., & Sherman, N. (2005). Microbiology: a laboratory manual (7th ed.). The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.

Carvalho, K. S., Melo, M. C., Melo, G. B., & Gontijo-Filho, P. P. (2007). Hospital surface contamination in wards occupied by patients infected with MRSA or MSSA in a Brazilian university hospital. Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada, 28(2), 159-163.

Cataño, J. C., Echeverri, L. M., & Szela, C. (2012). Bacterial contamination of clothes and environmental items in a third-level hospital in Colombia. Interdisciplinary perspectives on infectious diseases. 2012, 114-118. Article ID 507640. DOI:

Chaikoolvatana, A., & Pakasit, V. (2018). Evaluation of the establishment of health promoting hospital via geographic information system in the north-eastern area of Thailand. Science, Engineering and Health Studies (Former name: Silpakorn University Science and Technology Journal), 29, 47-58. DOI:

Chitpirom, K. (2013). Evaluation and bacterial contamination of public toilets. KKU Science Journal, 41(3), 789-796.

de Abreu, P. M., Farias, P. G., Paiva, G. S., Almeida, A. M., & Morais, P. V. (2014). Persistence of microbial communities including Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a hospital environment: a potential health hazard. BMC microbiology, 14(1), 1-10. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-14-118

Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. (2014). Sampling and Safety Guide (1st ed). Text and Journal Publication Company Limited.

Engelhart, S., Fischnaller, E., Simon, A., Gebel, J., Büttgen, S., & Exner, M. (2008). Microbial contamination of computer user interfaces (keyboard, mouse) in a tertiary care centre under conditions of practice. Hygiene+ Medizin, 33(12), 504-507

Flores, G. E., Bates, S. T., Knights, D., Lauber, C. L., Stombaugh, J., Knight, R., & Fierer, N. (2011). Microbial biogeography of public restroom surfaces. PloS one, 6(11) e28132, 1-7. DOI:

Garcia, C. C. P., Najera, A. M. J., & Arroyo, H. O. E. (2012). Fungal and bacterial contamination on indoor surfaces of a hospital in Mexico. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 5(3), 460-464. DOI: 10.5812/jjm.2625

Han, X. Y., Kamana, M., & Rolston, K. V. (2006). Viridans streptococci isolated by culture from blood of cancer patients: clinical and microbiologic analysis of 50 cases. Journal of clinical microbiology, 44(1), 160-165. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.44.1.160-165.2006

Jumaa, P. A. (2005). Hand hygiene: simple and complex. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 9(1), 3-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2004.05.005

Karbasizade, V., Sichani, M., & Parsafar, S. (2014). Bacterial contamination of computer keyboards in hospitals in Isfahan in Iran. International Journal of Biosciences, 4(1), 320-324. DOI:

Khan, H. A., Ahmad, A., & Mehboob, R. (2015). Nosocomial infections and their control strategies. Asian pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 5(7), 509-514. DOI:

Khan, H. A., Baig, F. K., & Mehboob, R. (2017). Nosocomial infections: Epidemiology, prevention, control and surveillance. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 7(5), 478-482. DOI:

Lalami, A. E. O., Touijer, H., Ettayebi, M., & Benchemsi, N. (2016). Microbiological monitoring of environment surfaces in a hospital in Fez city, Morocco. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 7(1), 123-130.

Lanini, S., D'Arezzo, S., Puro, V., Martini, L., Imperi, F., Piselli, P., ... & Ippolito, G. (2011). Molecular epidemiology of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa hospital outbreak driven by a contaminated disinfectant-soap dispenser. PloS one, 6(2), e17064, 1-10. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017064

Lei, H., Jones, R. M., & Li, Y. (2017). Exploring surface cleaning strategies in hospital to prevent contact transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. BMC infectious diseases, 17(1), 1-9. DOI:

Leontsini, F., Papapetropoulos, A., & Vantarakis, A. (2013). Stethoscopes as vectors of multi-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci in a tertiary hospital. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health., 2(2), 324-328. DOI: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.338-343

Meunier, O., Hernandez, C., Piroird, M., Heilig, R., Steinbach, D., & Freyd, A. (2005). Bacteriological sampling of surfaces: importance of the step of enrichment and the choice of the culture media. Annales de biologie Clinique, 63(5), 481-486.

Mwamungule, S., Chimana, H. M., Malama, S., Mainda, G., Kwenda, G., & Muma, J. B. (2015). Contamination of health care workers’ coats at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia: the nosocomial risk. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 10(1), 1-6. DOI:

Nabila, S., Adil, E., Abedelaziz, C., Nabila, A., Samir, H., & Abdelmajid, S. (2014). Rôle de l'environnement hospitalier dans la prévention des infections nosocomiales: Surveillance de la flore des surfaces à l'hôpital el Idrissi de Kenitra-Maroc. European Scientific Journal, 10(9), 238-247.

Ngonda, F. (2017). Assessment of bacterial contamination of toilets and bathroom doors handle/knobs at Daeyang Luke hospital. Pharmaceutical and Biological Evaluations, 4(4), 193-197. DOI:

Pesevska, S., Ivanovski, K., Mindova, S., Kaftandzieva, A., Ristoska, S., Stefanovska, E., ... & Koneski, F. (2016). Bacterial contamination of the toothbrushes. Journal of International Dental and Medical Research, 9(1), 6-12.

Russotto, V., Cortegiani, A., Raineri, S. M., & Giarratano, A. (2015). Bacterial contamination of inanimate surfaces and equipment in the intensive care unit. Journal of intensive care, 3(1), 1-8. DOI: 10.1186/s40560-015-0120-5

Sergent, A. P., Slekovec, C., Pauchot, J., Jeunet, L., Bertrand, X., Hocquet, D., Pazartc, L., & Talon, D. (2012). Bacterial contamination of the hospital environment during wound dressing change. Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research, 98(4), 441-445. DOI: 10.1016/j.otsr.2012.02.005

Shaheen, A., & Baqai, R. (2016). Biofilm formation by environmental microbes isolated from hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS), 15(1), 240-251.

Srion, T., & Nathapindhu, G. (2015). Type and quantity of microorganism on the surface of the device with in Nonsang Hospital and Nongbua Lamphu Hospital, Nongbua Lamphu Province. Mahasarakham Hospital Journal, 12(2), 69-80. [Full paper – in Thai].

Tankaew, P., Komolmal, P., Jaimoonwong, J., Intayot, P., & Sutabhaha, B. (2009). Exploration of microorganisms in hospital operating room, university classroom and meeting room by modified sampling collector compared to open dish method. Bulletin of Chiang Mai Associated Medical Sciences, 42(1), 26-36.

Teng, S. O., Lee, W. S., Ou, T. Y., Hsieh, Y. C., Lee, W. C., & Lin, Y. C. (2009). Bacterial contamination of patients’ medical charts in a surgical ward and the intensive care unit: impact on nosocomial infections. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 42(1), 86-91.

Uneke, C. J., Ogbonna, A., Oyibo, P. G., & Onu, C. M. (2010). Bacterial contamination of stethoscopes used by health workers: public health implications. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 4(07), 436-441. DOI:

Wang, L., & Ruan, S. (2017). Modeling nosocomial infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with environment contamination. Scientific reports, 7(1), 1-12. DOI:

Yusuf, J. B., Okwong, O. K., Mohammed, A., Abubakar, K. S., Babayo, A., Barma, M. M., ... & Bello, Z. S. (2017). Bacterial contamination of intensive care units at a tertiary hospital in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. American Journal of Internal Medicine, 5(3), 46-51. DOI:

Approved By TCI (2020 - 2024)

Indexed in