Login or Register to make a submission.

JCST

Journal of Current Science and Technology

ISSN 2630-0656 (Online)

Determination of appropriate proportional in-house flexible radiation shielding material using bismuth powder and natural-silicon rubber compounds

  • Gunjanaporn Tochaikul, Faculty of Radiological Technology, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Nutthapong Moonkum, Faculty of Radiological Technology, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Soontaree Sriwongta, Faculty of Radiological Technology, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Monchuporn Neamchumnan, Faculty of Radiological Technology, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Aksarapak Thawornnittayakul , Faculty of Radiological Technology, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Nuttapong Danthanavat, Faculty of Radiological Technology, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand, Corresponding author, E-mail: nuttapong.d@rsu.ac.th

Abstract

Currently, ionizing radiation is widely utilized in several institutions, especially medical departments.  However, the use of radiation can be hazardous.  Commonly, lead shielding was approved as commercial radiation protection.  The use of lead is also common, but it is an encumbrance to workers due to the weight and potential toxicity.  So, the purpose of this study was to determine the appropriate ratio of natural-silicon rubber and bismuth powder for producing in-house radiation shielding and comparing the protection efficiency of the test piece to commercial lead shielding.  To begin, pre-vulcanizable natural rubber was blended with silicone rubber in 5 different ratios, injected into a mold and allowed to cure.  An exposure technique was set up at 120 kVp, 10 mAs then penetrative radiation was measured through the test pieces.  The appropriate ratio of natural:silicon rubber 40:60 was chosen for the later experiments.  The bismuth powder 40, 45, and 50 grams was added to the ratios, respectively.  We then investigated the radiation protection efficiency of the test pieces.  Lead aprons and lead gloves were also examined for the ability of x-ray shielding and were compared to the radiation shielding efficiency of the test pieces.  The results showed that the suitable ratio of natural rubber and silicon rubber was 40:60 mixed with 50 grams bismuth powder.  The test piece provided the highest protection efficiency with radiation attenuation of 89.63%.  Even so, the test piece still cannot provide better performance than lead.  However, when the test piece thickness was increased to 1.75 cm, the results showed it provided a higher efficiency than lead materials. So, this study showed that pre-vulcanizable natural rubber and silicone rubber mixed with bismuth powder can be applied to reduce the radiation exposure similar to the commercial lead shielding.  In the future, these components might be developed to produce gloves or aprons for radiation shielding.

Keywords: Bismuth powder, natural rubber, natural-silicon rubber, radiation shielding, Silicon rubber, vulcanizable

PDF (631.13 KB)

DOI: 10.14456/jcst.2021.28

References

AbuAlRoos, N. J., Amin, N. A. B., & Zainon, R. (2019). Conventional and new lead-free radiation shielding materials for radiation protection in nuclear medicine: A review. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 165, 108439. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2019.108439

Akça, B., & Erzeneoğlu, S. Z. (2014). The mass attenuation coefficients, electronic, atomic, and molecular cross sections, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities for compounds of some biomedically important elements at 59.5 keV. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2014, 1-8. DOI: 10.1155/2014/901465

Awosan, K. J., Ibrahim, M. T. O., Saidu, S. A., Ma’aji, S. M., Danfulani, M., Yunusa, E. U., ... & Ige, T. A. (2016). Knowledge of radiation hazards, radiation protection practices and clinical profile of health workers in a teaching hospital in Northern Nigeria. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 10(8), LC07-12. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/20398.8394

El-Khatib, A. M., Doma, A. S., Badawi, M. S., Abu-Rayan, A. E., Aly, N. S., Alzahrani, J. S., & Abbas, M. I. (2020). Conductive natural and waste rubbers composites-loaded with lead powder as environmental flexible gamma radiation shielding material. Materials Research Express, 7(10). DOI:10.1088/2053-1591/abbf9f

El Fiki, S., El Kameesy, S. U., El Nashar, D. E., Abou- Leila, M. A., El-Mansy, M. K., & Ahmed, M. (2015). Mechanical and radiation shielding properties of flexible material based on natural rubber/ Bi2O3 composites. International Journal of Advanced Research, 3(6), 1035-1039.

Gan, L., Shang, S., & Jiang, S. X. (2016). Impact of vinyl concentration of a silicone rubber on the properties of the graphene oxide filled silicone rubber composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 84, 294-300. DOI:10.1016/j.compositesb.2015.08.073

Intom, S., Kalkornsurapranee, E., Johns, J., Kaewjaeng, S., Kothan, S., Hongtong, W., ... & Kaewkhao, J. (2020). Mechanical and radiation shielding properties of flexible material based on natural rubber/ Bi2O3 composites. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 172. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2020.108772

Kalkornsuranee, E., Intom, S., Lehman, N., Johns, J., Kothan, S., Sengloyluan, K., ... & Kaewkhao, J. (2020). Mechanical and gamma radiation shielding properties of natural rubber composites: effects of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) and lead oxide (PbO). Materials Research Innovations, 1-8. DOI: 10.1080/14328917.2020.1853383

Kalkornsurapranee, E., Kothan, S., Intom, S., Johns, J., Kaewjaeng, S., Kedkaew, C., ... & Kaewkhao, J. (2021). Wearable and flexible radiation shielding natural rubber composites: Effect of different radiation shielding fillers. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 179. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2020.109261

Lim-aroon, P., Wimolmala, E., Sombatsompop, N., & Saenboonruang, K. (2019). Manufacturing process and properties of lead-free natural rubber sponge for use in X-ray and gamma ray shielding applications. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 526(2019), 012015.

Lopresti, M., Alberto, G., Cantamessa, S., Cantino, G., Conterosito, E., Palin, L., & Milanesio, M. (2020). Light weight, easy formable and non-toxic polymer-based composites for hard X-ray shielding: A theoretical and experimental study. International journal of molecular sciences, 21(3), 833.

Martinez, T., & Cournoyer, M. (2001). Lead substitution and elimination study, part II (No. LA-UR-01-436). Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US).

Mu, H., Sun, J., Li, L., Yin, J., Hu, N., Zhao, W., ... & Yi, L. (2018). Ionizing radiation exposure: hazards, prevention, and biomarker screening. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(16), 15294-15306. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-2097-9

Nipat, K., & Doonyapong, W. (2013). Development flexible low-energy gamma ray shielding material composing of natural rubber- synthetic SBR and bismuth Research and Development Journal, 24(3), 48-51.

Onjun, O., Buasuwan, N., Rungseesumran, T., Kamwang, N., Channuie, J., & Sinkaew, P. (2019). Natural rubber block as gamma radiation shielding for medical applications. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1285(2019). DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/1285/1/012048

Sayyed, M. I., Akman, F., Kaçal, M. R., & Kumar, A. (2019). Radiation protective qualities of some selected lead and bismuth salts in the wide gamma energy region. Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 51(3), 860-866. DOI:10.1016/j.net.2018.12.018

Yao, Y., Zhang, X., Li, M., Yang, R., Jiang, T., & Lv, J. (2016). Investigation of gamma ray shielding efficiency and mechanical performances of concrete shields containing bismuth oxide as an environmentally friendly additive. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 127, 188-193. DOI:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2016.06.028

Approved By TCI (2020 - 2024)

Indexed in

Search