Login or Register to make a submission.

JCST

Journal of Current Science and Technology

ISSN 2630-0656 (Online)

Stress affects daily salivary cortisol profiles

  • Do Thi Kim Anh, Department of Advanced General Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
  • Nattinee Jantaratnotai, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
  • Somchai Manopatanakul, Department of Advanced General Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
  • Praewpat Pachimsawat, Department of Advanced General Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand, Corresponding author, E-mail: praewpat.pac@mahidol.ac.th

Abstract

Cortisol is a well-established biomarker of stress, and measurement of salivary cortisol (sCort) has attracted research interest because saliva collection is a non-invasive and subject-friendly procedure that does not require medical staff.  Previous studies have shown inconsistent results in the association between stress and daily sCort profiles.  This study aimed to compare sCort daily profiles between stressful and ordinary days in the same people.  Twenty healthy participants collected saliva four times a day (awakening, at 10:00h, 12:00h, 16:00h) on an ordinary day when the participants had general duties and on a stressful day where there were known stressful events happening to the participants.  The results showed that sCort levels on a stressful day were significantly higher than those on an ordinary day at two time points (10:00h and 12:00h, p = 0.000 and p = 0.038, respectively).  In addition, on an ordinary day, the sCort level at awakening was significantly higher than at 10:00h (p = 0.005), at 12:00h (p = 0.005), and at 16:00h (p = 0.000).  Meanwhile, the sCort value at 16:00h was the lowest value of the day with no difference between ordinary and stressful days.  In summary, this study found increased sCort values on a stressful day compared with an ordinary day, and the sCort levels at different times of the day were also different.

Keywords: cortisol, cortisol profiles, daily sCort profiles, saliva, salivary cortisol, stress

PDF (423.35 KB)

DOI: 10.14456/jcst.2021.26

References

Adam, E. K., & Gunnar, M. R. (2001). Relationship functioning and home and work demands predict individual differences in diurnal cortisol patterns in women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26(2), 189-208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4530(00)00045-7

Adam, E. K., Hawkley, L. C., Kudielka, B. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2006). Day-to-day dynamics of experience--cortisol associations in a population-based sample of older adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(45), 17058-17063. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0605053103

Ali, N., & Nater, U. M. (2020). Salivary alpha-amylase as a biomarker of stress in behavioral medicine. The International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. DOI: 10.1007/s12529-019-09843-x

Bedini, S., Braun, F., Weibel, L., Aussedat, M., Pereira, B., & Dutheil, F. (2017). Stress and salivary cortisol in emergency medical dispatchers: A randomized shifts control trial. PLOS ONE, 12(5), e0177094. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177094

Bozovic, D., Racic, M., & Ivkovic, N. (2013). Salivary cortisol levels as a biological marker of stress reaction. Medical Archives, 67(5), 371-374. DOI: 10.5455/medarh.2013.67.374-377

Chrousos, G. P. (2009). Stress and disorders of the stress system. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 5(7), 374-381. DOI: 10.1038/nrendo.2009.106

Chu, B., Marwaha, K., & Ayers, D. (2020). Physiology, stress reaction. In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Copyright © 2020, StatPearls Publishing LLC.

Garde, A. H., & Hansen, A. M. (2005). Long-term stability of salivary cortisol. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 65(5), 433-436. DOI: 10.1080/00365510510025773

Hellhammer, D., Wüst, S., & Kudielka, B. (2009). Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in stress research. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 163-171. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.10.026

Herriot, H., Wrosch, C., Hamm, J. M., & Pruessner, J. C. (2020). Stress-related trajectories of diurnal cortisol in older adulthood over 12 years. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 121, 104826. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104826

Ketchesin, K. D., Stinnett, G. S., & Seasholtz, A. F. (2017). Corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein and stress: from invertebrates to humans. Stress, 20(5), 449-464. DOI: 10.1080/10253890.2017.1322575

Kirschbaum, C., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1989). Salivary cortisol in psychobiological research: an overview. Neuropsychobiology, 22(3), 150-169. DOI: 10.1159/000118611

Knight, E. L., Jiang, Y., Rodriguez-Stanley, J., Almeida, D. M., Engeland, C. G., & Zilioli, S. (2021). Perceived stress is linked to heightened biomarkers of inflammation via diurnal cortisol in a national sample of adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.01.015

Kobayashi, H., Song, C., Ikei, H., Park, B.-J., Kagawa, T., & Miyazaki, Y. (2017). Diurnal changes in distribution characteristics of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A concentrations. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(9), 987. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14090987

Kogler, L., Müller, V. I., Chang, A., Eickhoff, S. B., Fox, P. T., Gur, R. C., & Derntl, B. (2015). Psychosocial versus physiological stress - Meta-analyses on deactivations and activations of the neural correlates of stress reactions. NeuroImage, 119, 235-251. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.059

Merz, C. J., & Wolf, O. T. (2015). Examination of cortisol and state anxiety at an academic setting with and without oral presentation. Stress, 18(1), 138-142. DOI: 10.3109/10253890.2014.989206

Mifsud, K. R., & Reul, J. (2018). Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor-mediated control of genomic responses to stress in the brain. Stress, 21(5), 389-402. DOI: 10.1080/10253890.2018.1456526

Miller, W. L. (2008). Steroidogenic enzymes. Endocrine Development, 13, 1-18. DOI: 10.1159/000134751

O'Connor, D. B., Hendrickx, H., Dadd, T., Elliman, T. D., Willis, T. A., Talbot, D., . . . Dye, L. (2009). Cortisol awakening rise in middle-aged women in relation to psychological stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(10), 1486-1494. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.05.002

Preuss, D., Schoofs, D., Schlotz, W., & Wolf, O. T. (2010). The stressed student: influence of written examinations and oral presentations on salivary cortisol concentrations in university students. Stress, 13(3), 221-229. DOI: 10.3109/10253890903277579

Sjörs, A., Ljung, T., & Jonsdottir, I. H. (2014). Diurnal salivary cortisol in relation to perceived stress at home and at work in healthy men and women. Biological Psychology, 99, 193-197. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.04.002

Stalder, T., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P., & Clow, A. (2009). Use of a single case study design to examine state variation in the cortisol awakening response: Relationship with time of awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(4), 607-614. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.10.023

Urizar, G. G., Miller, K., Saldaña, K. S., Garovoy, N., Sweet, C. M. C., & King, A. C. (2021). Effects of health behavior interventions on psychosocial outcomes and cortisol regulation among chronically stressed midlife and older adults. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 1-14. DOI: 10.1007/s12529-021-09957-1

Van Lenten, S. A., & Doane, L. D. (2016). Examining multiple sleep behaviors and diurnal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase: Within- and between-person associations. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 68, 100-110. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.02.017

Vining, R. F., McGinley, R. A., Maksvytis, J. J., & Ho, K. Y. (1983). Salivary cortisol: a better measure of adrenal cortical function than serum cortisol. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 20 (Pt 6), 329-335. DOI: 10.1177/000456328302000601

Watson, N. F., Badr, M. S., Belenky, G., Bliwise, D. L., Buxton, O. M., Buysse, D., . . . Tasali, E. (2015). Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. Sleep, 38(6), 843-844. DOI: 10.5665/sleep.4716

Yaribeygi, H., Panahi, Y., Sahraei, H., Johnston, T. P., & Sahebkar, A. (2017). The impact of stress on body function: A review. EXCLI Journal, 16, 1057-1072. DOI: 10.17179/excli2017-480

Approved By TCI (2020 - 2024)

Indexed in

Search