Login or Register to make a submission.


Journal of Current Science and Technology

ISSN 2630-0656 (Online)

Comparison of ocular parameters and dry eye measurements between Thai male smokers and non-smokers

  • Nisa Panon, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand, Corresponding author; E-mail: nisa.p@rsu.ac.th
  • Trinnawat Tongchit, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Sasinut Borvonshivabhumi, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Putthatida Sudsaweang, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Panpilin Pratoomsuwan, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Sukree Jehsoh, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Sareehah Kade, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Somying Phetlor, Department of Optometry, Mettapracharak Watraikhing Hospital, Nakhon Pathom 73210, Thailand
  • Jerry E. Vincent, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
  • Phatiwat Chotimol, Department of Cardio-Thoracic Technology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
  • Jullalit Tungtrakanpoung, Department of Optometry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
  • Pongnugoon Kongjaidee, Department of Optometry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
  • Watanee Jenchitr, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand


We compared anterior and posterior ocular parameters, spherical refractive error, and dry eye measurements in smoking and non-smoking Thai men.  This observational study included the left eyes of 145 male smokers and 147 age-matched healthy male non-smokers.  Subjects with systemic or ophthalmic diseases, use of any medications, history of ocular surgery or contact lens use were excluded.  All participants underwent a medical history review, blood pressure, height, weight, and body mass index calculation.  Spherical refractive error, corneal curvature, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber parameters, macular thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and cup to disc ratios were all measured.  Additionally, dry eye was assessed by tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer’s test I.  There were no significant differences found in anterior and posterior ocular parameters measure between smokers and non-smokers.  The smokers in our study were 0.25 D less myopic than the non-smokers but this finding was not significant.  The average TBUT among smokers was found to be two seconds less compared to non-smokers (5.00 seconds vs. 7.00 seconds, p < 0.001) and the average Schirmer I test finding among smokers was four millimeters less compared to non-smokers (10.00 mm vs. 14.00 mm, p = 0.044).  Smoking > 5 yrs. vs. £ 5 yrs. is associated with lower Schirmer I test results in those age 20-30 years old (16.00 mm vs. 22.52 mm, p = 0.05).  It is concluded that smoking is significantly associated with loss of quality and quantity of tear film.

Keywords: dry eye, ocular parameters, Schirmer I test, smoking, spherical refractive error, tear break-up time, TBUT

PDF (479.71 KB)

DOI: 10.14456/jcst.2021.19


Agrawal, N., Jharawal, M. K., Paharia, N., & Bansal, K. (2018). Effect of smoking on ocular surface and tear film: A clinico pathological study. Madridge Journal of Ophthalmology, 3(1), 39-42. DOI: 10.18689/mjop-1000112

Aktas, S., Tetikoglu, M., Kocak, A., Kocacan, M., Aktas, H., Sagdik, H. M., & Ozcura, F. (2017). Impact of smoking on the ocular surface, tear function, and tear osmolarity. Curr Eye Res, 42(12), 1585-1589. DOI: 10.1080/02713683.2017.1362005

Altinors, D. D., Akca, S., Akova, Y. A., Bilezikci, B., Goto, E., Dogru, M., & Tsubota, K. (2006). Smoking associated with damage to the lipid layer of the ocular surface. Am J Ophthalmol, 141(6), 1016-1021. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2005.12.047

Bertram, K. M., Baglole, C. J., Phipps, R. P., & Libby, R. T. (2009). Molecular regulation of cigarette smoke induced-oxidative stress in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: implications for age-related macular degeneration. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 297(5), C1200-1210. DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00126.2009

Bundhamcharoen, K., Aungkulanon, S., Makka, N., & Shibuya, K. (2016). Economic burden from smoking-related diseases in Thailand. Tobacco control, 25(5), 532-537. DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052319

Cheng, A. C., Pang, C. P., Leung, A. T., Chua, J. K., Fan, D. S., & Lam, D. S. (2000). The association between cigarette smoking and ocular diseases. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 6(2), 195-202.

El-Shazly, A. A. E., Farweez, Y. A. T., Elewa, L. S., Elzankalony, Y. A., & Farweez, B. A. T. (2017). Effect of active and passive smoking on retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex. J Ophthalmol, 2017, 6354025. DOI: 10.1155/2017/6354025

Frei, B., Forte, T. M., Ames, B. N., & Cross, C. E. (1991). Gas phase oxidants of cigarette smoke induce lipid peroxidation and changes in lipoprotein properties in human blood plasma. Protective effects of ascorbic acid. The Biochemical journal, 277 ( Pt 1)(Pt 1), 133-138. DOI: 10.1042/bj2770133

Grus, F. H., Sabuncuo, P., Augustin, A., & Pfeiffer, N. (2002). Effect of smoking on tear proteins. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 240(11), 889-892. DOI: 10.1007/s00417-002-0539-y

Khalaj, M., Gasemi, H., Barikani, A., Ebrahimi, M., & Rastak, S. (2014). Prevalence of presbyopia among smoking population. Journal of Eye and Ophthalmology, 1(1). DOI: 10.7243/2055-2408-1-1

Koh, S. (2016). Mechanisms of Visual Disturbance in Dry Eye. Cornea, 35 Suppl 1, S83-s88. DOI: 10.1097/ico.0000000000000998

Masmali, A. M., Al-Shehri, A., Alanazi, S. A., Abusharaha, A., Fagehi, R., & El-Hiti, G. A. (2016). Assessment of tear film quality among smokers using tear ferning patterns. J Ophthalmol, 2016, 8154315. DOI: 10.1155/2016/8154315

National Statistical Office (NSO). (2017). The report of behavior of smoking in 2017. Available from: http://www.nso.go.th/sites/2014/Pages/News/2561/N31-08-61-1.aspx. Accessed on: April 2018.

Pré, J., & Le Floch, A. (1990). Lipid-peroxidation products and antioxidants in plasma of cigarette smokers. Clinical Chemistry, 36(10), 1849-1850. DOI: 10.1093/clinchem/36.10.1849

Sarin, C. L., Austin, J. C., & Nickel, W. O. (1974). Effects of smoking on digital blood-flow velocity. Jama, 229(10), 1327-1328.

Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance. (2019, May 28). Thailand: Smoking claims 72,000 Thai lives every year. Available from: https://seatca.org/smoking-claims-72000-thai-lives-every-year/

Tamaki, Y., Araie, M., Nagahara, M., Tomita, K., & Matsubara, M. (2000). The acute effects of cigarette smoking on human optic nerve head and posterior fundus circulation in light smokers. Eye (Lond), 14 ( Pt 1), 67-72. DOI: 10.1038/eye.2000.15

Teberik, K. (2019). The effect of smoking on macular, choroidal, and retina nerve fiber layer thickness. Turkish journal of ophthalmology, 49(1), 20-24. DOI: 10.4274/tjo.galenos.2018.80588

The Nation Thailand. (2019, May 27). Smoking claims 72,000 Thai lives every year. Available from: https://www.nationthailand.com/news/30370088

Thomas, J., Jacob, G. P., Abraham, L., & Noushad, B. (2012). The effect of smoking on the ocular surface and the precorneal tear film. Australas Med J, 5(4), 221-226. DOI: 10.4066/amj.2012.1035

Timothy, C. O., & Nneli, R. O. (2007). The effects of cigarette smoking on intraocular pressure and arterial blood pressure of normotensive young Nigerian male adults. Niger J Physiol Sci, 22(1-2), 33-36.

Wang, D., Huang, Y., Huang, C., Wu, P., Lin, J., Zheng, Y., . . . Zhang, M. (2012). Association analysis of cigarette smoking with onset of primary open-angle glaucoma and glaucoma-related biometric parameters. BMC Ophthalmol, 12, 59. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-12-59

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020, May 27). Tobacco – Key facts. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tobacco

Yildirim, Y. (2015). A Comparison of corneal biomechanical properties of chronic smokers and non-smokers Using the Ocular Response Analyzer. Advances in Ophthalmology & Visual System, 2, 1-4. DOI: 10.15406/aovs.2015.01.00027

Yoon, K. C., Song, B. Y., & Seo, M. S. (2005). Effects of smoking on tear film and ocular surface. Korean J Ophthalmol, 19(1), 18-22. DOI: 10.3341/kjo.2005.19.1.18

Yoshida, M., Take, S., Ishikawa, M., Kokaze, A., Karita, K., Harada, M., & Ohno, H. (2014). Association of smoking with intraocular pressure in middle-aged and older Japanese residents. Environ Health Prev Med, 19(2), 100-107. DOI: 10.1007/s12199-013-0359-1

Approved By TCI (2020 - 2024)

Indexed in