Comparison of ocular parameters and dry eye measurements between Thai male smokers and non-smokers
- Nisa Panon, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand, Corresponding author; E-mail: email@example.com
- Trinnawat Tongchit, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
- Sasinut Borvonshivabhumi, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
- Putthatida Sudsaweang, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
- Panpilin Pratoomsuwan, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
- Sukree Jehsoh, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
- Sareehah Kade, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
- Somying Phetlor, Department of Optometry, Mettapracharak Watraikhing Hospital, Nakhon Pathom 73210, Thailand
- Jerry E. Vincent, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
- Phatiwat Chotimol, Department of Cardio-Thoracic Technology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
- Jullalit Tungtrakanpoung, Department of Optometry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
- Pongnugoon Kongjaidee, Department of Optometry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
- Watanee Jenchitr, Faculty of Optometry, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand
We compared anterior and posterior ocular parameters, spherical refractive error, and dry eye measurements in smoking and non-smoking Thai men. This observational study included the left eyes of 145 male smokers and 147 age-matched healthy male non-smokers. Subjects with systemic or ophthalmic diseases, use of any medications, history of ocular surgery or contact lens use were excluded. All participants underwent a medical history review, blood pressure, height, weight, and body mass index calculation. Spherical refractive error, corneal curvature, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber parameters, macular thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and cup to disc ratios were all measured. Additionally, dry eye was assessed by tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer’s test I. There were no significant differences found in anterior and posterior ocular parameters measure between smokers and non-smokers. The smokers in our study were 0.25 D less myopic than the non-smokers but this finding was not significant. The average TBUT among smokers was found to be two seconds less compared to non-smokers (5.00 seconds vs. 7.00 seconds, p < 0.001) and the average Schirmer I test finding among smokers was four millimeters less compared to non-smokers (10.00 mm vs. 14.00 mm, p = 0.044). Smoking > 5 yrs. vs. £ 5 yrs. is associated with lower Schirmer I test results in those age 20-30 years old (16.00 mm vs. 22.52 mm, p = 0.05). It is concluded that smoking is significantly associated with loss of quality and quantity of tear film.
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