Login or Register to make a submission.


Journal of Current Science and Technology

ISSN 2630-0656 (Online)

Effect of vegetable oil types on the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis sublingual drops

  • Jiroj Yangsud, College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Patumthani, Thailand
  • Pongphop Ahkkarachinoreh, College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Patumthani, Thailand
  • Supadit Santasanasuwan, College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Patumthani, Thailand
  • Jirapornchai Suksaeree, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Patumthani, Thailand
  • Thanapat Songsak, Medicinal Cannabis Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Patumthani, Thailand & Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pat
  • Athip Maha, Medicinal Cannabis Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Patumthani, Thailand
  • Fameera Madaka, Medicinal Cannabis Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Patumthani, Thailand & Drug and Herbal Product Research and Development Center, College of Pharmacy,
  • Chaowalit Monton, Medicinal Cannabis Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Patumthani, Thailand &Drug and Herbal Product Research and Development Center, College of Pharmacy, Rang, Corresponding author; E-mail: chaowalit@rsu.ac.th


This work sought to evaluate the stability of cannabis sublingual drops using high-performance liquid chromatography.  The cannabis extract was dissolved in different types of vegetable oil–four types of mixed vegetable oils and 11 types of single vegetable oil.  They were stored in the dark at 4 °C and 30 °C for 90 days.  The contents of main cannabinoids (cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and cannabinol) were analyzed and compared with the contents at the initial time.  Results showed that almost all of the vegetable oil types provided the formulation with a shelf-life (remained cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol ≥ 90%) of more than 60 days but less than 90 days at 30 °C.  Storage of cannabis sublingual drops at 4 °C provided more stable formulations than at 30 °C.  The formulations with the shelf-life of more than 90 days were found when the seven vegetable oils, including mixed oil (no.1), mixed oil (no.3), sesame oil, rice bran oil, olive oil (no.1), coconut oil (no.1), and coconut oil (no.2) were used.  In summary, the seven vegetable oil types can be selected as a vehicle to prepare the cannabis sublingual drops due to they could stabilize cannabinoids content.

Keywords: Cannabidiol, cannabinoids, cannabis sublingual drop, stability, tetrahydrocannabinol, vegetable oil

PDF (926.59 KB)

DOI: 10.14456/jcst.2021.4


Bielawiec, P., Harasim-Symbor, E., & Chabowski, A. (2020). Phytocannabinoids: Useful drugs for the treatment of obesity? Special focus on cannabidiol. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 11, 114. DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00114

Capen, R., Christopher, D., Forenzo, P., Ireland, C., Liu, O., Lyapustina, S., O'Neill, J., Patterson, N., Quinlan, M., Sandell, D., Schwenke, J., Stroup, W., & Tougas, T. (2012). On the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. AAPS PharmSciTech, 13(3), 911-918. DOI: 10.1208/s1

Citti, C., Ciccarella, G., Braghiroli, D., Parenti, C., Vandelli, M. A., & Cannazza, G. (2016). Medicinal cannabis: Principal cannabinoids concentration and their stability evaluated by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry method. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 128, 201-209. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.05.033

Citti, C., Linciano, P., Russo, F., Luongo, L., Iannotta, M., Maione, S., Laganà, A., Capriotti, A. L., Forni, F., Vandelli, M. A., Gigli, G., &. Cannazza, G. (2019). A novel phytocannabinoid isolated from Cannabis sativa L. with an in vivo cannabimimetic activity higher than Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabiphorol. Scientific Reports, 9(1), Article number: 20335. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-56785-1

Garrett, E. R., & Tsau, J. (1974). Stability of tetrahydrocannabinols I. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 63(10), 1563-1574. DOI: 10.1002/jps.2600631016

Hanuš, L. O., Meyer, S. M., Muñoz, E., Taglialatela-Scafati, O., & Appendino, G. (2016). Phytocannabinoids: a unified critical inventory. Natural Product Reports, 33(12), 1357-1392. DOI: 10.1039/c6np00074f

Harvey, D. J. (1990). Stability of cannabinoids in dried samples of cannabis dating from around 1896-1905. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28(1), 117-128. DOI: 10.1016/0378-8741(90)90068-5

Madras, B. K. (2015). Update of Cannabis and its medical use. Retrieved January 13, 2020, from https://www.who.int/medicines/ access/controlled-substances/ 6_2_cannabis_update.pdf

Melo, S. R., Homem-de-Mello, M., Silveira, D., & Simeoni, L. A. (2014). Advice on degradation products in pharmaceuticals: A toxicological evaluation. PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, 68(3), 221-238. DOI: 10.5731/pdajpst.2014.00974

Melveger, A. J., & Huynh-Ba, K. (2009). Critical regulatory requirements for a stability program. In K. Huynh-Ba (Ed.), Handbook of stability testing in pharmaceutical development (pp. 9-19). New York, USA: Springer.

Monton, C., Madaka, F., Settharaksa, S., Wunnakup, T., Suksaree, J., & Songsak, T. (2019). Optimal condition of cannabis maceration to obtain the high cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 91(3), e20190676. DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765201920190676

Pawar, P. P., Ghorpade, H. S., & Kokane, B. A. (2018). Sublingual route for systemic drug delivery. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 8(6-s), 340-343. DOI: 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2097

Radwan, M. M., ElSohly, M. A., El-Alfy, A. T., Ahmed, S. A., Slade, D., Husni, A. S., Manly, S. P., Wilson, L., Seale, S., Cutler, S. J., & Ross, S. A. (2015). Isolation and pharmacological evaluation of minor cannabinoids from high-potency Cannabis sativa. Journal of Natural Products, 78(6), 1271-1276. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00065

Repka, M. A., ElSohly, M. A., Munjal, M., & Ross, S. A. (2006). Temperature stability and bioadhesive properties of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol incorporated hydroxypropylcellulose polymer matrix systems. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 32(1), 21-32. DOI: 10.1080/03639040500387914

Trofin, I. G., Dabija, G., Vaireanu, D. I., & Filipescu, L. (2012a). Long-term storage and cannabis oil stability. Revista de Chimie, 63(3), 293-297.

Trofin, I. G., Dabija, G., Vãireanu, D. I., & Filipescu, L. (2012b). The influence of long-term storage conditions on the stability of cannabinoids derived from cannabis resin. Revista de Chimie, 63(4), 422-427.

Zivovinovic, S., Alder, R., Allenspach, M. D., & Steuer, C. (2018). Determination of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. samples for recreational, medical, and forensic purposes by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology, 9(1), Article number: 27. DOI: 10.1186/s40543-018-0159-8

Indexed in

TCI Tier 1 (2020-2024)