Synthesis and characterizations of zinc oxide based nanofluids for heat transfer improvement in single tube circular heat exchangers
- Waqar Ahmed, Institute of Advance Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Departments of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Corresponding authors; E-mail: email@example.com
- Kazi Md Salim Newaz, Departments of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
- Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Nanotechnologies and Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Malaysia
- Muhammad Rafie Bin Johan, Nanotechnologies and Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Malaysia
- Muhammad Mujtaba Abbas, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, New Campus Lahore, Pakistan
- Manzoore Elahi Muhammad Soudagar, Departments of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by Sono-chemical technique and later characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis, FESEM, and EDX to confirm the proper synthesis. The two-step preparation of ZnO-DW based nanofluids were achieved after dispersing ZnO nanoparticles in the base fluid (DW) by using high probe sonicator, where four different (0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1) wt.% concentrations of ZnO-DW based nanofluids were prepared. All the ZnO-DW based nanofluids were investigated thoroughly about the different thermo physical properties and their optimistic effects on improvement of heat transfer coefficient in a circular heat exchanger. The thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, density etc. of ZnO-DW based nanofluids showed some promising effects on heat transfer improvement, friction factor and pumping power in a circular heat exchanger. Experimental investigations on heat transfer characteristics were conducted in a circular heat exchanger with constant heat flux boundary condition and at different Reynolds numbers in the turbulent flow regime. The addition of ZnO solid nanoparticles (7g) in the base fluid (DW/7L) provided a surprising improvement of about 37% in the thermal conductivity. The maximum improvement in heat transfer at the highest concentration of 0.1 wt.% ZnO-DW based nanofluid was about 52% more than that of the base fluid. Consolidated results of the experimental investigations with ZnO-DW based nanofluids revealed that the specified nanofluid could be suitable for heat transfer applications.
Abdelrazek, A. H., Alawi, O. A., Kazi, S. N., Yusoff, N., Chowdhury, Z., & Sarhan, A. A. (2018). A new approach to evaluate the impact of thermophysical properties of nanofluids on heat transfer and pressure drop. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 95, 161-170.
Alawi, O. A., Sidik, N. A. C., Xian, H. W., Kean, T. H., & Kazi, S. N. (2018). Thermal conductivity and viscosity models of metallic oxides nanofluids. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 116, 1314-1325.
Ali, S., Orell, O., Kanerva, M., & Hannula, S. P. (2018). Effect of Morphology and Crystal Structure on the Thermal Conductivity of Titania Nanotubes. Nanoscale research letters, 13(1), 212. DOI: 10.1186/s11671-018-2613-3
Amiri, A., Shanbedi, M., Yarmand, H., Arzani, H. K., Gharehkhani, S., Montazer, E., & Kazi, S. N. (2015). Laminar convective heat transfer of hexamine-treated MWCNTs-based turbine oil nanofluids. Energy conversion and management, 105, 355-367.
Arunkumar, T., Anish, M., Jayaprabakar, J., & Beemkumar, N. (2019). Enhancing heat transfer rate in a car radiator by using Al2O3 nanofluid as a coolant. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 40(4), 367-373.
Arya, H., Sarafraz, M. M., Pourmehran, O., & Arjomandi, M. (2019). Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of MgO nanofluid in a double pipe heat exchanger. Heat and Mass Transfer, 55(6), 1769-1781. DOI: 10.1007/s00231-018-02554-1
Askarinejad, A., Alavi, M. A., & Morsali, A. (2011). Sonochemically assisted synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles: a novel direct method. Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 30(3), 75-81.
Dittus, F. W., & Boelter, L. M. K. (1985). Heat transfer in automobile radiators of the tubular type. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 12(1), 3-22.
Gliech, M., Görlin, M., Gocyla, M., Klingenhof, M., Bergmann, A., Selve, S., Spöri, C., Heggen, M., Dunin‐Borkowski, R. E., Suntivich, J., & Strasser, P. (2020). Solute incorporation at oxide–oxide interfaces explains how ternary mixed‐metal oxide nanocrystals support element‐Specific anisotropic growth. Advanced Functional Materials, 30(10), 1909054.
Gnielinski, V. (1975). New equations for heat and mass transfer in the turbulent flow in pipes and channels. STIA, 41(1), 8-16. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975STIA...7522028G/abstract
Lee, S., Choi, S. U., Li, S., & Eastman, J. A. (1999). Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nanoparticles. ASME. Journal of Heat Transfer, 121(2): 280-289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2825978
Kleinstreuer, C., & Feng, Y. (2011). Experimental and theoretical studies of nanofluid thermal conductivity enhancement: a review. Nanoscale research letters, 6(1), 229. DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-6-439
Madsen, I. C., Scarlett, N. V., Cranswick, L. M., & Lwin, T. (2001). Outcomes of the International Union of Crystallography Commission on powder diffraction round robin on quantitative phase analysis: samples 1a to 1h. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 34(4), 409-426. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1107/S0021889801007476
Mugilan, T., Sidik, N. A. C., & Japar, W. M. A. A. (2017). The use of smart material of nanofluid for heat transfer enhancement in microtube with helically spiral rib and groove. Journal of Advanced Research in Materials Science, 32(1), 1-12
Nagarajan, F. C., Kannaiyan, S., & Boobalan, C. (2020). Intensification of heat transfer rate using alumina-silica nanocoolant. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 149, 119127.
Nava, O. J., Soto-Robles, C. A., Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M., Vilchis-Nestor, A. R., Castro-Beltrán, A., Olivas, A., & Luque, P. A. (2017). Fruit peel extract mediated green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1147, 1-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.molstruc.2017.06.078
Ohashi, H., Hagiwara, M., & Fujihara, S. (2017). Solvent-assisted microstructural evolution and enhanced performance of porous ZnO films for plastic dye-sensitized solar cells. Journal of Power Sources, 342, 148-156.
Palanisamy, K., & Kumar, P. M. (2019). Experimental investigation on convective heat transfer and pressure drop of cone helically coiled tube heat exchanger using carbon nanotubes/water nanofluids. Heliyon, 5(5), e01705. DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01705
Pastoriza-Gallego, M. J., Lugo, L., Cabaleiro, D., Legido, J. L., & Piñeiro, M. M. (2014). Thermophysical profile of ethylene glycol-based ZnO nanofluids. The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 73, 23-30.
Petukhov, B. (1970). Heat transfer and friction in turbulent pipe flow with variable physical properties. Advances in Heat Transfer, 6, 503-564. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2717(08)70153-9
Phor, L., Kumar, T., Saini, M., & Kumar, V. (2019). Al2O3-water nanofluids for heat transfer Application. MRS Advances, 4(28-29), 1611-1619. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1557/adv.2019.172
Phuruangrat, A., Yayapao, O., Thongtem, T., & Thongtem, S. (2014). Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Ho doped ZnO nanostructures synthesized by sonochemical method. Superlattices and Microstructures, 67, 118-126. DOI: 10.1016/j.spmi.2013.12.023
Sandhu, H., Gangacharyulu, D., & Singh, M. K. (2019). Experimental study on stability of different nanofluids by using different nanoparticles and base fluids. In ASTFE Digital Library. Begel House Inc. pp. 1289-1297. DOI: 10.1615/TFEC2019.epa.027991
Sivasubramanian, M., Theivasanthi, T., & Manimaran, R. (2019). Experimental investigation on heat transfer enhancement in a minichannel using CuO-water nanofluid. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 40(8), 847-853.
Tejes, P. K. S., & Appalanaidu, D. Y. (2017). Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer augmentat ion using zno-proplyene glycol nanofluids in an automobile radiator. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 8(7), 1132-1143, Article ID: IJMET_08_07_123Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=8&IType=7ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
Wensel, J., Wright, B., Thomas, D., Douglas, W., Mannhalter, B., Cross, W., Hong, H., Keller J., Smith, P., & Roy, W. (2008). Enhanced thermal conductivity by aggregation in heat transfer nanofluids containing metal oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes. Applied Physics Letters, 92(2), 023110.
Yu, W., France, D. M., Routbort, J. L., & Choi, S. U. (2008). Review and comparison of nanofluid thermal conductivity and heat transfer enhancements. Heat transfer engineering, 29(5), 432-460. DOI: 10.1080/01457630701850851
Yu, W., Xie, H., Li, Y., & Chen, L. (2011). Experimental investigation on thermal conductivity and viscosity of aluminum nitride nanofluids. Particuology, 9(2), 187-191. DOI: 10.1016/j.partic.2010.05.014