Make a submission.


Journal of Current Science and Technology

ISSN 2630-0656 (Online)

Comparative study of physico-mechanical properties, thermal stability and water absorption of biodegradable films prepared from commercial oxidized and cross-linked cassava starches

  • Chanakorn Yokesahachart, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Agro-Industry, Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Thailand, Corresponding author E-mail:
  • Supaporn Pajareon, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Agro-Industry, Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Thailand


Physico-mechanical properties, thermal stability and water absorption of biodegradable films from chemically modified cassava starches were investigated. Two types of commercial modified cassava starches as oxidized cassava starch and cross-linked cassava starch were prepared by film casting.  Starch solution was prepared at a concentration of 1% w/w (dry basis) and glycerol was used as a plasticizer.  Unmodified cassava starch was used as the control film.  The obtained films were characterized based on their physical, morphological, mechanical and thermal properties as well as water absorption.  Results indicated that oxidized and cross-linked cassava starch films were easily fabricated using the film casting method with glycerol content at 30% w/w of dried starch weight as a plasticizer.  Thickness of modified cassava starch films ranged 0.06-0.16 mm. Oxidized cassava starch and cross-linked cassava starch films were transparent. Cassava starch modified by both oxidation and cross-linking methods resulted in improved tensile strength of films at 2.39-4.59 folds with reduced water absorption by 3.36-3.72 folds. Chemical modification with oxidation resulted in cassava starch films with high transparency, smooth surface and high strength and stiffness, while cross-linking produced cassava starch films with high extensibility.  Hence, biodegradable films from both oxidized and cross-linked cassava starches have a great potential to be applied to food packaging.

Keywords: biodegradable films; modified cassava starch; morphology; physico-mechanical properties; thermal stability; water absorption

PDF (311.48 KB)

DOI: 10.14456/jcst.2020.12


ASTM D882-02, Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2002, DOI: 10.1520/D0882-02

ASTM D570-98, Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 1998, DOI: 10.1520/D0570-98

Berski, W., Ptaszek, A., Ptaszek, P., Ziobro, R., Kowalski, G., Grzesik, M., & Achremowicz, B. (2011). Pasting and rheological properties of oat starch and its derivatives. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83(2), 665-671. DOI:

Dai, L., Zhang, J., & Cheng, F. (2019). Effects of starches from different botanical sources and modification methods on physicochemical properties of starch-based edible films. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 132, 897-905. DOI:

de Pauli, R. B., Quast, L. B., Demiate, I. M., & Sakanaka, L. S. (2011). Production and characterization of oxidized cassava starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz) biodegradable films. Starch/Stärke, 63(10), 595-603. DOI:

Fonseca, L. M., Goncalves, J. R., Halal, S. L. M. E., Pinto, V. Z., Dias, A. R. G., Jacques, A. C., & Zavareze, E. R. (2015). Oxidation of potato starch with different sodium hyperchlorite concentrations and its effect on biodegradable films. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 60(2), 714-720. DOI:

Gutiérrez, T. J., Morales, N. J., Pérez, E., Tapia, M. S., & Famá, L. (2015). Physico-chemical properties of edible films derived from native and phosphated cush-cush yam and cassava starches. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 3, 1-8. DOI:

Gutiérrez, T. J., Tapia, M. S., Pérez, E., & Famá, L. (2015). Structural and mechanical properties of edible films made from native and modified cush-cush yam and cassava starch. Food Hydrocolloids, 45, 211-217. DOI:

Hag, F., Yu, H., Wang, L., Teng, L., Haroon, M., Khan, R.U., Mehmood, S., Amin, B.U., Ullah, R.S., Khan, A., & Nazir, A. (2019). Advances in chemical modifications of starches and their applications. Carbohydrate Research, 476, 12-35. DOI:

Han, J. H. (2014). Chapter 9 - Edible films and coatings: A review. In J. H. Han (Ed), Innovations in Food Packaging (2nd ed., pp. 213-255). Academic Press. DOI:

HunterLab. (2001). EasyMatch QC 4.70 and Above User’s Manual. Hunter associates Laboratory.

Jaramillo, C. M., Gutiérrez, T. J., Goyanes, S., Bernal, C., & Famá, L. (2016). Biodegradability and plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract on cassava starch edible films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 151, 150-159. DOI:

Marques, P. T., Lima, A. M. F., Bianco, G., Laurindo, J. B., Borsali, R., Meins, J.-F. L., & Soldi, V. (2006). Thermal properties and stability of cassava starch films cross-linked with tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 91(4), 726-732. DOI:

Oluwasina, O. O., Olaleye, F. K., Oluseegun, S. J., Oluwasina, O. O., & Mohallem, N. D. S. (2019). Influence of oxidized starch on physicomechanical, thermal properties, and atomic force micrographs of cassava starch bioplastic film. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 135, 282-293. DOI:

Pelissari, F.M., Andrade-Mahecha, M.M., Sobral, P.J.A., & Menegalli, F.C. (2013). Comparative study on the properties of flour and starch films of plantain bananas (Musa paradisiaca). Food Hydrocolliods, 30(2), 681-690. DOI:

Piyachomkwan, K., & Tanticharoen, M. (2011). Cassava Industry in Thailand: Prospects. The Journal of the Royal Institute of Thailand, 3, 160-170.

Reddy, N., & Yang, Y. (2010). Citric acid cross-linking of starch film. Food Chemistry, 118, 702-711. DOI:

Seligra, P. G., Jaramillo, C. M., Famá, L., & Goyanes, S. (2016). Biodegradable and non-retrogradable eco-films based on starch–glycerol with citric acid as crosslinking agent. Carbohydrate Polymers, 138, 66-74. DOI:

Sondari, D., & Iltizam, I. (2018). Effect of hydrogen peroxide on edible film from cassava starch. 2nd International Conference on Chemistry, Chemical Process and Engineering (IC3PE), AIP Conference Proceedings 2026(1), 020083-1–020083-7. DOI:

Vu, H. P. N., & Lumdubwong, N. (2016). Starch behaviors and mechanical properties of starch blend films with different plasticizers. Carbohydrate Polymers, 154, 112-120. DOI:

Xu, A., Guo, K., Liu, T., Bian, X., Zhang, L., & Wei, C. (2018). Effects of different isolation media on structural and functional properties of starches from root tubers of purple, yellow and white sweet potatoes. Molecules, 23(9), 2135. DOI:

Xu, H., Canisag, H., Mu, B., & Yang, Y. (2015). Robust and flexible films from 100% starch cross-linked by biobased disaccharide derivative. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 3(11), 2631-2639. DOI:

Zhang, Y.-R., Wang, X.-L., Zhou, G.-M., & Wang, Y.-Z. (2012). Preparation and properties of oxidized starch with high degree of oxidation. Carbohydrate Polymers, 87(4), 2554-2562. DOI:

Zhang, Y., Rempel, C., & Liu, Q. (2014). Thermoplastic starch processing and characteristics - A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54(10), 1353-1370. DOI:

Zhao, Y., & McDaniel, M. (2005). 24 - Sensory quality of foods associated with edible film and coating systems and shelf-life extension. In J. H. Han (Ed), Innovations in Food Packaging (pp.434-453). Academic Press. DOI:

Approved By TCI (2020 - 2024)

Indexed in